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BLOOD TESTING

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INR measurment):   http://www.cliawaived.com/web/Prothrombin_Monitoring.htm?gclid

Blood & Blood Products (The Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne):  Guidelines

                                                                                                                          

Arterial Blood Gas Analysis machines: ABL800 FLEX http://www.radiometeramerica.com/abl800

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BLOOD TEST REFERENCE RANGE (according to the type of test):

Electrolytes and Metabolites
Sodium (Na):    135 - 147   mmol/L (or mEq/L)
Potassium (K):   3.5 - 5.1   mmol/L (or mEq/L)
Chloride (Cl):       95 – 107 mmol/L (or mEg/L)
Osmolalit:         275 – 295  mOsm/kg
Urea:                     1.2 – 6.4  mmol/L     (7 – 21 mg/dL)
Uric acid[5]   0.18 – 0.48 mmol/L    (3.0 – 8.5 mg/dL)
Creatinine    male 62 – 115 μmol/L   (0.7 – 1.3 mg/dL)    female 53 – 97 μmol/L   (0.6 – 1.1 mg/dL)                                                    Glucose (fasting)   3.8 – 6.1 mmol/L   (65 - 110 mg/dL)                                                                                                                          Serum iron (TSI)  male 65 – 198 µg/dL   female 50 – 170   newborns 100 – 250   children 50 – 120
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)  240 – 474
Transferrin[5]  204 – 360 mg/dL
Transferrin saturation   20 – 50 %
Ferritin  Male 18 – 250 ng/mL   Female 12 – 160 ng/mL

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Acid and base
pH   7.34 -7. 7.45    [H+] 36 – 44 nmol/L
base excess (BE)   -3 - +3
PaO2   10 – 14 kPa    75 – 105 mmHg
PaCO2   4.4 – 5.9 kPa   33 – 45 mmHg
Bicarbonate (HCO3-)   18 – 23 mmol/L  Standard bicarbonate (SBCe) 21 – 28 mmol/L or mEq/L

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Liver function
Total Protein  60 – 82 g/L
Albumin          35 – 55 g/L   (3.5 – 5.5U/L)
Globulins      23 – 35  g/L
Total Bilirubin  2 – 17 μmol/L (0.1 – 1.3mg/dL)
Direct Bilirubin 0 – 5 μmol/L  (0 – 0.3 mg/dL)
Alanine transaminase (ALT) 7 - 56 U/L Also called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 20 – 126 U/L p-NPP at 30 degrees C Higher in children and pregnant women.
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)  8 – 78 U/L

Cardiac tests
Creatine kinase (CK) - male 24 – 195 U/L  or ng/mL
Creatine kinase (CK) - female 24 – 170 U/L
CK-MB 0 – 3 ng/mL
Troponin  0 – 0.4 ng/mL

Other enzymes and proteins
Aspartate transaminase (AST)  5 - 35  U/L Also called serum glutamic oxatoacetic transaminase (SGOT)
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 85 – 285 U/L
Amylase 25 – 125 U/L
C-reactive protein (CRP) n/a - 5 mg/L
D-dimer n/a – 500 ng/mL
Lipase  7 – 60 U/L

Trace elements
Calcium (ionised) (Ca) 1.15 – 1.29 mmol/L Some calcium is bound to albumin, thus not measured by certain techniques.
Total calcium (Ca) 2.1 – 2.8mmol/L 8.4 – 10.2 mg/dL
Phosphate (HPO42−) 0.8 – 1.5 mM
Inorganic phosphorus (serum)  1.0 – 1.5 mmol/L   3.0 – 4.5 mg/dL
Copper (Cu) 11 – 24 μmol/L
Zinc (Zn) 10 – 17 μmol/L

Lipids
Triglycerides 0.4 – 2.2 mmol/L    (50 – 250 mg/dL)
Total cholesterol 3.6 – 6.5 mmol/L   (120 – 250 mg/dL)
HDL cholesterol (male) 0.7 – 1.9 mmol/L   HDL cholesterol (female) 0.9 – 2.4 mmol/L
LDL cholesterol 2.4 – 3.3 mmol/L Not valid when triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L.

Tumour markers
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) n/a – 10 kU/l   0 – 44 ng/mL
Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) 20 – 53 mmol/L (150 – 350 mg/dL)
Beta Human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG)  n/a – 5 IU/l in male and non-pregnant female
CA-125 (also CA12.5)  n/a – 35 U/ml
CA15.3  n/a – 28 U/ml
CA19.9  n/a – 40 U/ml
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) - non-smokers n/a – 3  μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) – smokers n/a – 5  μg/l
Prostate specific antigen (PSA)  n/a – 4 μg/L

Hormones
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.3 – 3.0 mIU/L Also called: Thyrotropin
Free thyroxine (FT4)  9 – 24 pmol/L (0.8 – 1.5 ng/dL)
Total thyroxine 60 – 140 nmol/L  (5.5 – 12.3 ng/mL)
Free triiodothyronine (FT3)  2.5 – 5.3 pmol/L     (0.2 – 0.5 ng/dL)
Total triiodothyronine 1.1 - 2.7 nmol/L Values in children may be higher 60 – 180 ng/dL

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)  1.3 – 15 pmol/L    20 – 100 pg/mL
Cortisol (08:30 h)  250 – 850 nmol/L Cortisol levels are higher in the morning than at night.
Cortisol (16:30 h) 110 – 390 nmol/L
Growth hormone (fasting)  0 – 5 ng/mL
Growth hormone (arginine stimulation)  7 –  n/a ng/mL
Prolactin (male)  n/a – 450 mIU/L
Prolactin (female) n/a – 580 mIU/L
Testosterone (male) 8 – 38 nmol/L
Testosterone (male prepuberty) 0.1 – 0.5 nmol/L
Testosterone (female) 0.3 – 2.5  nmol/L

Hematology
Haemoglobin (Hb):   male 2.1 – 2.7  mmol/L Higher in neonates, lower in children.
                                    132 – 175  g/L
female 1.9 – 2.5  mmol/L Sex difference negligible until adulthood.
                                    115 – 160  g/L
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)  4 – 5.9 % of Hb
Haematocrit (Hct)  male 0.38 – 0.53   female 0.36 –  0.46    Child 0.31 – 0.43
Hemoglobin in plasma 0.16 – 0.62 μmol/L 1 – 4 mg/dL
Mean cell volume (MCV) Male 82 – 102  fL Cells are larger in neonates, though smaller in other children.  Female 78 – 101fL
MCV standard deviation 35 – 47fL
Mean cell haemoglobin (MCH)  0.39 – 0.54 fmol/cell  25 – 35 pg/cell
Mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) 31 – 35g/dL
Red cell count (RBC)  male 4.3 – 6.2  x1012/L Female 3.5 – 5.8  x1012/L  Infant/Child 3.8 – 5.5 x1012/L
Reticulocytes 10 – 100 x109/L  Adult 0.5 – 1.5 % of RBC
Newborn 1.1 – 4.5 % of RBC  Infant 0.5 – 3.1 % of RBC
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) 11.5 – 14.5 % Coefficient of variation

White blood cells
White Blood Cell Count (WBC.) 4.1 – 11   x109/L  or x103/mm3 or  x103/μL Higher in neonates and infants.
Neutrophil granulocytes 2 – 7.5  x109/L Also known as granulocytes (grans), polys, PMNs, or segs. 45 – 74 % of WBC
Neutrophilic band forms 3 – 5 % of WBC
Lymphocytes 1.3 – 4 x109/L 16 – 45 % of WBC
Monocytes 0.2 – 0.8 x109/L  3 – 10 % of WBC
Mononuclear leukocytes 1.5 – 5  x109/L Lymphocytes + monocytes. Mean: 35% of WBC. 20 – 35% of WBC
CD4+ cells  0.4 – 1.8 x109/L
Eosinophil granulocytes 0.04 – 0.4  x109/L  1 – 7 % of WBC

Basophil granulocytes 0.01 – 0.1 x109/L

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BLOOD TEST REFERENCE RANGE (Alphabetical order):
Acetoacetate <3 mg/dL
Acidity (pH) 7.35 - 7.45
Alcohol 0 mg/dL (> 0.1 mg/dL  indicates ethanol intoxication)
Ammonia 15 - 50 µg of nitrogen/dL
Amylase 53 - 123 units/L
Ascorbic Acid 0.4 - 1.5 mg/dL
Bicarbonate 18 - 23 mEq/L (carbon dioxide content)
Bilirubin Direct: up to 0.4 mg/dL      Total: up to 1.0 mg/dL
Blood Volume 8.5 - 9.1% of total body weight
Calcium 8.5 - 10.5 mg/dL (normally slightly higher in children)
Carbon Dioxide Pressure 35 - 45 mm Hg
Carbon Monoxide Less than 5% of total hemoglobin
CD4 Cell Count 500 - 1500 cells/µL
Ceruloplasmin 15 - 60 mg/dL
Chloride 98 - 106 mEq/L
Copper Total: 70 - 150 µg/dL
Creatine Kinase (CK or CPK) Male: 38 - 174 units/L, Female: 96 - 140 units/L
Creatine Kinase Isoenzymes 5% MB or less
Creatinine 0.6 - 1.2 mg/dL
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR or Sed-Rate) Male: 1 - 13 mm/hr, Female: 1 - 20 mm/hr
Glucose Tested after fasting: 70 - 110 mg/dL
Hematocrit Male: 45 - 62%, Female: 37 - 48%
Hemoglobin Male: 13 - 18 gm/dL,  Female: 12 - 16 gm/dL
Iron 60 - 160 µg/dL (normally higher in males)
Iron-binding Capacity 250 - 460 µg/dL
Lactate (lactic acid) Venous: 4.5 - 19.8 mg/dL    Arterial: 4.5 - 14.4 mg/dL
Lactic Dehydrogenase 50 - 150 units/L
Lead 40 µg/dL or less (normally much lower in children)
Lipase 10 - 150 units/L
Zinc B-Zn 70 - 102 µmol/L
Lipids:
             Cholesterol Less than 225 mg/dL (for age 40-49 yr; increases with age)
             Triglycerides 10 - 29 years 53 - 104 mg/dL
                                      30 - 39 years 55 - 115 mg/dL
                                      40 - 49 years 66 - 139 mg/dL 
                                      50 - 59 years 75 - 163 mg/dL
                                      60 - 69 years 78 - 158 mg/dL
                                           > 70 years 83 - 141 mg/dL
Magnesium 1.5 - 2.0 mEq/L
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) 27 - 32 pg/cell
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) 32 - 36% hemoglobin/cell
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) 76 - 100 cu µm
Osmolality 280 - 296 mOsm/kg water
Oxygen Pressure 83 - 100 mm Hg
Oxygen Saturation (arterial) 96 - 100%
Phosphatase, Prostatic 0 - 3 units/dL (Bodansky units) (acid)
Phosphatase 50 - 160 units/L (normally higher in infants and adolescents) (alkaline)
Phosphorus 3.0 - 4.5 mg/dL (inorganic)
Platelet Count 150,000 - 350,000/mL
Potassium 3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) 0 - 4 ng/mL (likely higher with age)
Proteins:
                Total 6.0 - 8.4 gm/dL 
                Albumin 3.5 - 5.0 gm/dL
                Globulin 2.3 - 3.5 gm/dL

Prothrombin (PTT) 25 - 41 sec
Pyruvic Acid 0.3 - 0.9 mg/dL
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC) 4.2 - 6.9 million/µL/cu mm

Sodium 135 - 145 mEq/L
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) 0.5 - 6.0 µ units/mL
Transaminase:
                             Alanine (ALT) 1 - 21 units/L
                             Aspartate (AST) 7 - 27 units/L

Urea Nitrogen (BUN) 7 - 18 mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine Ratio 5 - 35
Uric Acid Male 2.1 to 8.5 mg/dL (likely higher with age)  Female 2.0 to 7.0 mg/dL (likely higher with age)
Vitamin A 30 - 65 µg/dL
WBC (leukocyte count and white Blood cell count) 4.3-10.8 × 103/mm3
White Blood Cell Count (WBC) 4,300 - 10,800 cells/µL/cu mm